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Copernicus: October 2021, third warmest globally.  Northern Europe is warmer but colder in the southeast

Copernicus: October 2021, third warmest globally. Northern Europe is warmer but colder in the southeast

Anomaly in surface air temperature for the month of October 2021 compared to the October average for the period 1991-2020. Data source: ERA5. Source: Copernicus Climate Change Service / ECMWF.

Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S), conducted by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts on behalf of the European Union, and publishes monthly climate bulletins on changes in Earth’s surface temperatureAnd sea ​​ice distribution And Hydrological variables. All reported results are based on computer-generated analyzes of billions of measurements from satellites, ships, aircraft and weather stations around the world.

Air surface temperature in October 2021:

  • Globally, the temperature was 0.42°C warmer than the 1991-2020 average, and the month is estimated to be the third warmest October on record and only marginally colder than October 2015 and 2019
  • October 2021 was warmer than average across Europe, warmer than average in northern and southwestern Europe and colder than average in southern and southeastern Europe
  • It was warmer than average in northern Canada, northern Russia, and eastern Antarctica, while it was colder than normal in southern Africa, southern Australia and western Antarctica.

The maps and data values ​​for specific temperature come from ECMWF Copernicus Climate Change Services ERA5. Zone averages of temperatures in the European region are only for countries with the following latitude/longitude limits: 25W-40E, 34N-72N.

C3S followed the recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to use the past 30 years to calculate climate averages and changed to the 1991-2020 reference period for C3S Climate Bulletins covering January 2021 and beyond. Figures and graphics for both the new and previous periods (1981-2010) are provided for transparency.

More information about October’s climate variables and climate updates from previous months as well as high-resolution graphics can be downloaded here:

More information about the C3S dataset and how it is collected can be found here:

More information on changing the reference period can be found here:

Answers to frequently asked questions about temperature monitoring can be found here:

About ECMWF and Copernicus

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Copernicus is part of the European Union’s Space Programme, funded by the European Union, the flagship Earth observation programme. The company operates through six thematic services: Atmosphere, Marine, Land, Climate Change, Security and Emergencies. It offers freely available operational data and services that provide users with reliable and up-to-date information about our planet and its environment. The program is coordinated and managed by the European Commission and implemented in partnership with Member States, the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMTSAT), the European Center for Medium Distance Forecasting (ECMWF), European Union agencies, Mercator Océan and more.

ECMWF operates two services of the European Union’s Copernicus Earth Observation Program: the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) and the Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S). They also contribute to the Copernican Emergency Management Service (CEMS), which is implemented by the European Union Joint Research Council (JRC). The European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is an independent intergovernmental organization supported by 34 countries. It is a 24/7 operational research and service institute that produces and publishes digital weather forecasts to its member states. These data are fully available to the national meteorological services of the member states. The supercomputer facility (and associated data archives) at the ECMWF is one of the largest of its kind in Europe and member states can use 25% of its capacity for their own purposes.

ECMWF has increased the number of places in which it does business. In addition to the main office in the UK and the computing center in Italy, new offices focusing on activities implemented in partnership with the European Union, such as Copernicus, will be located in Bonn, Germany starting in the summer of 2021.

Copernicus Atmosphere Watch Service (B):

Copernicus Climate Change Service website:
More information about Copernicus:

ECMWF: s webb:

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Media connection

Nuria Lopez
Communication | Copernicus contracts and the press
General manager’s office
European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
Reading, UK | Bologna, Italy
Email: [email protected]
Phone: +44 (0) 118949 9778
Mobile: +44 (0) 7392277523
Twitter: Tweet embed

Bjorn Mogensen
Oxenstierna Communication
+46 708-184298
[email protected]


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